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How to paraphrase, quote and summarize in your thesis?

During your research for your thesis, you use several ideas and studies from other researchers. You’re doing this because your thesis explores more deeply previous research. Using someone else’s research can be done in two ways, either by quoting or paraphrasing that person’s work.

When you quote someone else’s work, you literally copy sentences; when you paraphrase, you expose someone’s idea in your own words.

However, it is important that you always cite the source you used. If you don’t do that, you’re plagiarizing.

 

Why and when to cite his sources?

 

  • Add value to his research work while respecting copyright. By referring to and citing various sources outside one’s work, one values one’s own work. But if it is important to get involvedWhen writing a research paper, however, one must be sure to recognize the different authors of the paper.to be the « father » of ideas or writings that have beent enriched the work and thus « to return to Caesar this qui belongs to Caesar ».
  • Develop its research expertise. By searching for reference sources and quoting them, we ensure quality training. Doing the work yourself means learning to look for information and to use it well. It also means acquiring know-how that can be used throughout professional life.
  • Demonstrate a sense of professional ethics. Readers should be given the opportunity to verify the accuracy and completeness of the information provided.reported data or quoted text, or again to see the quote in context. It is a prbasic principle of scientific communication.
  • Make it easier for the reader to locate sources: Allow the reader who would like to know more about the(a) a text or an author mentioned in the to trace the sources we used, which will only be possible if the references to these have been given in the documentent.

When should we quote?

 

When you report word for word what someone else is saying.re said or wrote;

When one paraphrases, that is to say puts in one’s pronear words, what someone else has said or written;

When integrating photographs, images, datas, statistics, graphics in a document; that the source used is a document publié ou non publié; un document printed or available on the Internet; protected by the copyright or public domain.

 

What should we avoid quoting?

 

We must avoid quoting:

  • details: a long extract that could be summarized or even of which only some passages could to be quoted
  • what one can express in one’s own words to the of a paraphrase
  • your own experiences, or observations, or when you share your ideas on a topic.
  • public knowledge : A fact is said to be of public notoriety when it is found in several different sources of information and is likely to be known by a large majority of people. For example, dates of important events, expressions, etc..

 

The quotation: definition

A quotation is a passage from a book to illustrate or support what is advanced in a work. It is imperative that the source be identified. This obligation applies to all sources: books, periodical articles, encyclopaedias, audiovisual documents, Internet pages, etc.  A quotation is textual when you repeat exactly what an author has written. It is indirect or out of text when one borrows an idea or a comment from an author  it is then a paraphrase. In all In such cases, the source must be acknowledged.

What is a paraphrase ?

The paraphrase consists in taking up an author’s ideas in his own words. Like the quote, it supports his ideas. However, it allows an author’s ideas to be presented without using the same words. By integrating directly into the text, it makes it easier to read. It is particularly useful in cases where the terms uthe author do not appear to be adequate. for what we want to prove. But, in all cas, when you use the paraphrase, you must not never forget to refer to the document from where comes from the information.

However, paraphrasing does not only consist of to replace the words in the original text with synonyms. It is necessary to completely rewrite the passagei.e. change words and structure sentences. If we want to keep at least a few words from the original passage, you need them put in quotation marks («  »).  Paraphrasing is therefore an art. The more you practice ita, the better we become. Its use is important, because it shows that we really understoods ce que l’auteur a voulu dire. In addition, it allows you to highlight your own writing styleure, because these are his words and not those of the author that appear on the page. The sequence between his ideas and those of others will be by the fact even more fluid.

 

Paraphrase

When you paraphrase something, you describe a (part of a) study in your own words. By doing so, you can integrate an existing theory into your own research very easily.

However, even if the paraphrase is formulated in your own words, it is still someone else’s idea. So you should always cite your source when paraphrasing.

It is also important to always introduce a paraphrase. You can do this in the following way: « Janssen (2008) states in his research that… ».

 

How to make a good paraphrase?

 

To make a good paraphrase, it is important toe understand the original text. He’s more easy to rewrite an extract in your own words of text whose meaning we have grasped.

Comfortable with paraphrasing?

Then, you can simply read the passage you want to paraphrase several times, close the book and rewrite the passage from memory in your own words.

Not comfortable with the paraphrase? Then follow the method proposed below. Six-step method

1-Replace certain words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, etc.) with synonyms. When paraphrasing, make sure to preserver the meaning of the author’s words. We need to choose words that have substantially the same meaningfication than those used by the author. One must also select words with which on is familiar. If we’re not sure about the meaning of a word, you have to check it in the dictionnaire. Caution: do not replace each word of the original passage by a synonym, mays simply the most important words important.

2- Change sentence structure

The order of the words must be changed, i.e. rewritten.laughing at the sentences in a new form. This can be done by, among other things, changing the logical connectors, such as coordination conjunctions and the conjunctions of subordination. To help each other, we can consult the logic connector equivalence table.

3- Change the parts of the speech

The parts of the speech are the different categoriesamong which the words of the language are divided: nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbes…e understand the original text. He’s more easy to rewrite an extract in your own words of text whose meaning we have grasped.

 

Comfortable with paraphrasing?

Then, you can simply read the passage you want to paraphrase several times, close the book and rewrite the passage from memory in your own words.

Not comfortable with the paraphrase? Then follow the method proposed below. Six-step method

1-Replace certain words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, etc.) with synonyms. When paraphrasing, make sure to preserver the meaning of the author’s words. We need to choose words that have substantially the same meaningfication than those used by the author. One must also select words with which on is familiar. If we’re not sure about the meaning of a word, you have to check it in the dictionnaire. Caution: do not replace each word of the original passage by a synonym, mays simply the most important words important.

2- Change sentence structure

The order of the words must be changed, i.e. rewritten.laughing at the sentences in a new form. This can be done by, among other things, changing the logical connectors, such as coordination conjunctions and the conjunctions of subordination. To help each other, we can consult the logic connector equivalence table.

3- Change the parts of the speech

The parts of the speech are the different categories among which the words of the language are divided: nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs… It is therefore a matter of replacing a noun by a verb, an adjective by a noun, a verb by a noun, etc.. This change will probably alter the order of the words in the sentence.

 

Original text

This drug is only sold in Canada.

Paraphrased text

This drug was marketed in Canada only.

4- Make any other changes deemed appropriate

Any change that allows the author’s ideas to be expressed otherwise may be made to the original excerpt.

5- Compare the paraphrase with the original extract

This will ensure not only that the author’s words or sentence structure were not accidentally used, but also that the paraphrase contains the author’s ideas.

6- Indicate the source

Although we do not repeat the exact words of the author, we nevertheless repeat his ideas. It is therefore essential to indicate the reference number.e of the text we paraphrased. Do not forget to indicate the page on which you took the information.

Paraphrase or summary?

The term « paraphrase » is generally used when someone describes someone else’s research in their own words. However, this is not completely correct. A paraphrase is the description of a certain quotation from someone else, formulated in your own words. A paraphrase is thus approximately the same length as the quotation from the original text.

If you describe completely or partially the result of a more substantial part of the research, this is called a summary.

There is a clear difference between the paraphrase and the summary. However, in general (as is also the case in many universities), both are called paraphrases.

 

General advice

 

  •    Only quote or paraphrase author(s) who are authoritative in their field of research.
  •     It is important that the quotation or paraphrase has added value to your research. The quotation or paraphrase should also be integrated coherently with the rest of the text. The text before or after the quotation or paraphrase should clarify what you mean.
  •     A quotation or paraphrase is not complete without an appropriate quotation in the text and integration into the reference list, layout correctly in the appropriate reference style.
  •     Avoid and detect plagiarism using a software.

 

Summary

When writing the work, to support his argument, ideas are sometimes taken from an author or extracts from his work are reproduced. In all cases, it is important to cite sources for several reasons: by citing it, the rs editor does justice to the author from whom he drew theidea or the text, it avoids plagiarism and the reader can rewriteeasily refer to the sources used.

  • Avoiding plagiarism

Plagiarism is a « Literary Theft. Plagiarism consiste to appropriate the words or ideas of someone else and present them as his. »

(Petit Robert 1, 2005). So this flight is punishable by sanctions that may jeopardize the smooth running of university studies.

  • Cite sources

In a work that we use the exact words ofan author, or that one takes up in one’s own words the ideas of an author (paraphrase), one must :

oto do so by following a number of canon

othe source is correctly acknowledged where the citation comes from

o Include a bibliography at the end of the work that ce either for printed documents or electronic documents that we used.